Maritime Domain Data

We have collected numerous data of various formats ranging from the movement of legitimate vessels through behavior strategies of pirates and positions of naval forces to all incidents in observed area for last 6 years.

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Global Maritime Traffic Data

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Automatic Identification System

We have gathered a set of records from AIS system. There is a number of servers providing AIS data in a limited resolution for free and a number of commercial sources. For more details, see Year 1 Report.

AIS Traces from real-world traffic.

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International Recommended Transit Corridor

To facilitate safe crossing of the Gulf of Aden, the International Recommended Transit Corridor (IRTC) was amended in 2009 to reflect revised analysis of piracy in the Gulf of Aden and to incorporate shipping industry feedback. The new corridor has been positioned further from established fishing areas, resulting in a reduction of false piracy alerts.

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Group Transit Scheme Data

In August 2010, a group transit scheme was introduced to further reduce the risk of pirate attacks. Gulf of Aden Group Transits are designed to group ships into different speed groups in order to exploit additional protection and assurance of travelling in a group. Each transit follows a recommended navigation track (NAV-TRACK) through the IRTC at a published speed that avoids highest-risk piracy areas and time intervals and allows maximum effectiveness of support- ing military assets if needed. There is one transit per day for each speed group. See Table below.

Speed Entry point A - time Entry point B - time
10 kts 04:00 GMT+3 18:00 GMT+3
12 kts 08:30 GMT+3 00:01 GMT+3
14 kts 11:30 GMT+3 04:00 GMT+3
16 kts 14:00 GMT+3 08:30 GMT+3
18 kts 16:00 GMT+3 10:00 GMT+3

The times for different speed groups to enter the IRTC are calculated so that the groups pass through the area of statistically greatest risk, between 47E and 49E, at night and they ensure that all ships, regardless of speed, are together at first light. This allows the military forces in the area to best position their assets in the area so as to protect ships against piracy and to provide assistance in case of attack.

 Group Transit Scheme Visualization

Datasets of speeds of ships transiting the Gulf of Aden.

  1. Uniform U(10,20) dataset containing 10000 values of speeds uniformly distributed inside the [10, 20] interval.  
  2. Normal N(15,5/3) dataset containing 10000 values of speeds sampled from the normal distribution with mean value 15 and standard deviation 5/3.
  3. Real-world dataset containing 2366 samples of speeds reconstructed from AIS records gathered from the VesselTracker website.

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Pirate Behavior and Incidents Data

Pirate incidents for 2005-2010.

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Counter-Piracy Operations Data

The amount of public information on piracy-related military operations in the Gulf of Aden and in the Indian Ocean is limited. From the public sources, we have been able to identify three most important counter-piracy operations: Combined Maritime Forces (CMF), Operation Ocean Shield (NATO), Operation ATALANTA (EU NAVFOR).

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Combined Maritime Forces

Combined Maritime Forces (CMF) are multinational forces comprising of approximately three dozen ships. It is comprised of three principle combined task forces: CTF 150, CTF 151 and CTF 152 [1]. Their purpose is to increase security and prosperity of the region. The primary goal of CMF is the reduction of illegal acts, crime and terrorism threats in the maritime domain in order to promote the maritime environment as a safe place for legitimate business. At present, the CMF focuses mainly on reducing piracy threat.

The main purpose of Combined Task Force 150 is to reduce the threat of terrorism. Its area of responsibility is the Northern Indian Ocean outside the Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea. CTF 151’s sole mission is to counter piracy. Recently, the task force focused on the Gulf of Aden and the Somali Basin. CTF 152 is responsible for security in the Arabian Gulf.

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Operation Ocean Shield

Operation Ocean Shield is NATO’s contribution to international counter-piracy efforts. The operation is currently conducted by four warships.

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Operation ATALANTA

Operation ATALANTA is a counter-piracy mission backed by EU NAVFOR. It is EU’s first naval operation. ATALANTA is performed by seven warships and by the same number of aircrafts. There are other navies actively fighting piracy, in particular the Indian Navy, Chinese Navy, Japanese Navy and many others.

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4W Grid

4W Grid (or 4-Whiskey Grid) is described without much depth in this document. The grid is laid over the Gulf of Aden and divides the area into square sectors. The highest risk sectors are assigned to selected anti-piracy operation forces (see above) as their areas of responsibility.

4W Grid with the sectors assigned to individual counter-piracy operation task forces.

Publications

Papers

  • Ondrej Vanek and Ondrej Hrstka and Michal Pechoucek: Improving Group Transit Schemes to Minimize Negative Effects of Maritime Piracy. IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems (to appear). 2014.
    BiBTeX | PDF (430)
  • Ondrej Vanek and Michal Pechoucek: Dynamic Group Transit Scheme for Corridor Transit. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Modeling, Simulation and Applied Optimization (ICMSAO). IEEE Press, 2013.
    BiBTeX | PDF (388)
  • Ondrej Vanek and Michal Jakob and Ondrej Hrstka and Michal Pechoucek: Agent-based Model of Mariime Traffic in Piracy-affected Waters. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies.. 2013, vol. 36, p. 157–176. ISSN 0968-090X.
    BiBTeX | PDF (422)
  • Michal Jakob and Ondrej Vanek and Ondrej Hrstka and Michal Pechoucek: Agents vs. Pirates: Multi-Agent Simulation and Optimization to Fight Maritime Piracy. In 12th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems. 2012.
    BiBTeX | PDF (345)
  • Ondrej Vanek: Security Games with Mobile Patrollers (Extended Abstract). In Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS). 2011.
    BiBTeX | PDF (7)
  • Ondrej Vanek, Michal Pechoucek, Michal Jakob, Branislav Bosansky a Viliam Lisy: Agentni simulaci proti somalskym piratum. Scientific American, Czech Edition. 2011.
    BiBTeX | PDF (5)
  • Ondrej Vanek, Michal Jakob, Ondrej Hrstka, and Michal Pechoucek: AgentC: Agent-based System for Securing Maritime Transit (Demonstration). In Proceedings of The 10th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems. 2011.
    BiBTeX | PDF (10)
  • Ondrej Vanek and Michal Jakob and Viliam Lisy and Branislav Bosansky and Michal Pechoucek: Iterative Game-theoretic Route Selection for Hostile Area Transit and Patrolling. In Tenth International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems. 2011.
    BiBTeX | PDF (14)
  • Michal Jakob and Ondrej Vanek and Michal Pechoucek: Using Agents to Improve International Maritime Transport Security. IEEE Intelligent Systems. 2011, vol. 26, p. 90-96. ISSN 1541-1672.
    BiBTeX | PDF (13)
  • Ondrej Hrstka and Ondrej Vanek: Optimizing Group Transit in the Gulf of Aden. In Proceedings of 15th International Student Conference on Electrical Engineering (POSTER). 2011.
    BiBTeX | PDF (6)
  • Branislav Bosansky, Viliam Lisy, Michal Jakob and Michal Pechoucek: Computing Time-Dependent Policies for Patrolling Games with Mobile Targets. Tenth International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems. 2011.
    BiBTeX | PDF (12)
  • Ondrej Vanek and Branislav Bosansky and Michal Jakob and Michal Pechoucek: Transiting Areas Patrolled by a Mobile Adversary. In Proceedings of 2010 IEEE Conference on Compuattional Intelligence and Games. 2010.
    BiBTeX | PDF (51)
  • Michal Jakob and Ondrej Vanek and Stepan Urban and Petr Benda and Michal Pechoucek: Employing Agents to Improve the Security of International Maritime Transport. In Proceedings of AAMAS 2010 Workshop on Agents In Traffic and Transportation. 2010.
    BiBTeX | PDF (59)
  • Stepan Urban and Michal Jakob and Michal Pechoucek: Probabilistic modeling of mobile agents' trajectories. In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Agents and Data Mining Interaction (ADMI 2010). 2010.
    BiBTeX | PDF (50)
  • Michal Jakob and Ondrej Vanek and Stepan Urban and Petr Benda and Michal Pechoucek: AgentC: Agent-based Testbed for Adversarial Modeling and Reasoning in the Maritime Domain (Demo). In Proceedings of The Ninth International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems. 2010.
    BiBTeX | PDF (58)
  • Ondrej Vanek: Agent-based Simulation of the Maritime Domain. In POSTER 2010, 14th International Student Conference on Electrical Engineering. CVUT, Fakulta elektrotechnicka, 2010.
    BiBTeX | PDF (53)
  • Ondrej Vanek: Agent-based Simulation of the Maritime Domain. Acta Polytechnica. 2010, vol. 50, p. 94-99.
    BiBTeX | PDF (44)
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Books

  • Ondrej Vanek and Michal Jakob and Michal Pechoucek: Using Data-Driven Simulation for Analysis of Maritime Piracy. In Prediction and Recognition of Piracy Efforts Using Collaborative Human-Centric Information Systems. IOS Press, 2013, p. 109-116.
    BiBTeX | DOCX (316)
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Other

  • Ondrej Vanek: Computational Methods for Transportation Security. . 2013.
    BiBTeX | PDF (431)
  • Ondrej Vanek, Michal Jakob, Ondrej Hrstka, and Michal Pechoucek: Agent-based System for Securing Maritime Transit (May 2011). . 2011.
    BiBTeX | PDF (313)
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Reports

  • Michal Jakob and Ondrej Vanek and Branislav Bosansky and Ondrej Hrstka and Vojtech Krizek and Stepan Urban and Petr Benda and Michal Pechoucek: Adversarial Modeling and Reasoning in the Maritime Domain - Year 2 Report. . 2010.
    BiBTeX | PDF (26)
  • Michal Jakob and Ondrej Vanek and Stepan Urban and Petr Benda and Michal Pechoucek: Adversarial Modeling and Reasoning in the Maritime Domain (Year 1 Report). . 2009.
    BiBTeX | PDF (57)
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